Ancient History of India

Jun 1 2016 • History • 725 Views • No Comments on Ancient History of India


  • Ancient History

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    Ancient Times Of History:

Major Periods in Early Indian Archaeology:-

2 million BP (Before Present) Lower Paleolithic
80,000 Middle Paleolithic
35,000 Upper Paleolithic
12,000 Mesolithic
10,000 Neolithic
6,000 Chalcolithic ( first use of copper)
2600 BCE Harappan Civilisation
1500-1000 BCE Early Vedic Period
1000-600 BCE Later Vedic Period (first use of Iron)

Courtesy: NCERT

  • Stone Age :-
  1. Paleolithic Age:-
  • This age defines the appearance of earliest culture to use stone tools.
  • In this period, man gathers food.
  1. Mesolithic Age:-
  • It is also called as middle stone age.
  • It is the transition phase.
  • Man started domestication of animals in Mesolithic period.
  1. Neolithic Age:-
  • It is also called as new stone age.
  • It was period in which development of human technology started.
  • In neolithic period, man is the food producer.
  • Invention of wheel took place in this period only.
  • The first metal that was found by man was copper in Chalcolithic age.
  1.  b) Indus valley Civilization (2600-1900 BC):-
  • In 1875, the first Director-General of the ASI, Alexander Cunningham( known as the father of Archaeology) reported on Harappan seal.
  • In 1921 AD, Dayaram Sahni had discovered Harappa.
  • Harappa was situated on the bank of Ravi river in Punjab state of Pakistan.
  • In 1922 AD, R.D Banerjee had discovered Mohenjodaro.
  • Mohenjodaro(means mound of death) was situated on the bank of Indus river in Sindhu state of Pakistan.
  • Great Bath was found in Mohenjodaro.
  • Important Sites:-
  • Kalibanga – Ghaghar- Punjab
  • Banwali – Saraswati – Haryana
  • Ropar – Satluj – Punjab
  • Lothal(port) – Bhagwa river – Gujarat
  • Features Of Indus Valley Civilization (IVC):-
  • It is Bronze age.
  • Urban civilization
  • Roads straight and cut each other at 90 degree.
  • Well drainage system.
  • Main Occupation – agriculture.
  • Main food crop – wheat.
  • Evidence of Rice –  Lothal, Rangpur (in Gujarat).
  • Most important animal – Humped bull.
  • Evidence of horse – Sur Kotla (Gujarat).
  • They didn’t know about Iron.
  • They did image worship.
  • First time cotton was cultivated in IVC.
  • First time the game of chess had been introduced by IVC.
  • People of IVC trade with Mesopotamia(Iraq).
  • Mother of goddess(Earth) was the most important among the gods and goddess.
  • The people of this civilisation worshiped Neem tree, Pashupati tree and Peepal tree.
  • The script of this civilisation was pictographic.
  1. c) Vedic Civilisation(1500-600 BC):-
  1. Early Vedic Period (1500-1000 BC) :-
  • Rigveda the oldest religious book of Hindu religion.
  • It was composed by Aryans in Punjab.
  • Aryans first time came in Punjab and introduced Sanskrit language in India.
  • Rigveda has 1028 hymns.
  • It is divided into 10- mandals out of which second and eighth mandal are oldest while first and tenth mandals are latest.   
  • Gayatri mantra is taken from tenth mandal.
  • Rigveda is about prayers of different Gods and Goddess.
  • Original Home Of Aryans:-
  • Maxmuller                    – Central Asia
  • Dayananda Saraswati – Tibet
  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak   –   North Pole        
  • Penuke                           –  Germany
  • A.C Das                          –  Sapt Sindhu State
  • Features Of Early Vedic Period:-
  • Rural Civilization
  • Didn’t know about Iron
  • Indra was the most important God, known as Prundar.
  • Horse was their favorite animal and Aryans were good cavaliers.
  • There was no concept of king, state and personal property.
  • Rajan or Gopal was the head of the society.
  • Sabha, Samiti and Vidhata help the rajan to perform his duty.
  • In the later part of this civilization varna system introduced in society.
  • Society was divided into 4- classes :- Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Sudras.
  • Varna system was based on the work not on the birth.
  1. Later Vedic Period (1000 – 600 BC) :-
  • This civilization was known as Painted Grey ware Phase.
  • First time iron was used in India in 1000 BC at Gandhar.
  • Three more vedas were introduced in this period.
  • Samveda – Music book, Yajurveda – Methods Of Ritual’s book, Atharvaveda – Medicine and Magic books.
  • 7 Brahmanas – These are the notes of vedas and these are the first example of Prose Writing in the world.
  • 108 Upanishads (sitting besides) – theses are the philosophy of hindu religion.
  • Satyamev Jayate is taken from mundaka upanishad.
  • Ramayana was written by Valmiki And Mahabharata (originally known as Jaya Samhita and Satasahiri Samhita) was written by Ved Vyas.
  • Features Of Later Vedic Period:-
  • Rural Civilization
  • Main occupation – Agriculture
  • Most important God – Prajapati
  • Cow was the most religious animal considered in this period.
  • Varna system based on the birth, condition of sudras was miserable.
  • Pushan (God of animal) was god of sudras.






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